Glossary


The contents of this website refer to legal bases which have not entered into force.
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For reasons of simplicity, all terms referring to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will be replaced with the term “drone” below.

A

Airspace observer

A person who assists the remote pilot by scanning the airspace in which the drone is operating for potential airborne hazards through unassisted visual scanning. 

Assemblies of people

A group or crowd of people. The decisive factor in whether a group of people constitutes an “assembly of people” is not a specific number of people, but whether it would be possible for a single person to move away in order to escape any danger posed by an out-of-control drone. An assembly of people exists when a large number of people are so densely packed together that it is almost impossible for a single person to move away from the crowd or from the drone.

B

Beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) operation

A mode of drone operation that is not conducted with visual line of sight (VLOS).

C

CE-Marking

Marking by which the manufacturer indicates that the product conforms to the requirements of the relevant EU harmonisation legislation.

Class marking

The class marking (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6) defines the operational capabilities of your drone and the requirements that pilots must adhere to.

Controlled airspace

An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D and E. (Source: ICAO Annex 11)

Controlled ground area

An area on the ground within which the drone is operated and the operator can ensure that only persons involved in the operation are present. 

D

Drone observer

A person who is next to the remote pilot and who, by direct visual observation of the drone, assists the pilot in maintaining visual contact with the drone and ensuring flight safely.

Dangerous goods

Articles or substances which, in the event of an incident or accident, pose a hazard to health, safety, property or the enviro

E

Extended visual line of sight (EVLOS) operation

An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operation whereby the Pilot in Command (PIC) maintains an uninterrupted situational awareness of the airspace in which the UAS operation is being conducted via visual airspace surveillance through one or more human observers, possibly aided by technology means. The PIC has a direct control of the UAS at all time. 

F

Frequencies

A drone – containing a transmitter and/or a receiver – is essentially a radio unit. Rules of use are governed by the Telecommunications Act, and OFCOM is responsible for managing drone frequencies.
More information can be found in the FAQs.

G

Geo-Awareness

A function that, based on the data provided by Member States, detects a potential breach of airspace limitations and alerts the remote pilots so that they can take immediate and effective action to prevent that breach.

L

Limited open category

Transitional category which governs the regulations and requirements for drones without a CE or class marking. Minimally restrictive rules and requirements apply to remote pilots flying their drone in this category.

M

Maximum take-off mass (MTOM)

The maximum permitted mass of the drone, including payload and fuel (as determined by the manufacturer or builder) with which the drone can be operated.

P

Privately built drone

A drone and associated equipment which has been assembled or manufactured by the builder for his own use. Drones and associated systems assembled from components sold by the manufacturer as a prefabricated kit are not covered by this definition. 

R

Recognized body

A body recognised by the FOCA to carry out practical training and assess the practical skills of remote pilots in the context of a standard scenario. Organisations wishing to be declared a recognised body by the FOCA can find more detailed information in the FAQ.

S

Sparsely populated area

An area in which there are no more than 10 inhabited houses within a radius of 100 metres.

U

UAS.gate

Official registration, training and examination platform for remote pilots in the ‘open’ category. The platform will soon be available; operators will have the opportunity to register and undertake training and sit the exam on a voluntary basis.

Uncontrolled airspace

No official definition, but in principle it is the airspace which is not controlled. 

Unmanned aircraft system (UAS)

A drone and remote control equipment.

Uninvolved people

Persons who are not involved in the drone operation or who are unaware of the drone operator’s instructions and safety procedures.

V

Visual line of sight operation (VLOS) 

A mode of drone operation during which the remote pilot is able to maintain uninterrupted visual contact with the drone without the assistance of an observer. 

Last modification 09.06.2021

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