Emissions landing charges
Switzerland was (together with Sweden) one of the first countries in the world to introduce charges directly related to gaseous emissions from aircraft. (1997 Zurich, 1998 Geneva, 2000 Berne, 2003 Basle (in collaboration with French authorities)). 2010 Switzerland change to a European harmonised charging model. The charge primarily depends on the absolute amount of NOx emissions.
Switzerland introduced emissions charges with the primary focus on supporting and forcing the use of best available low emissions engine technology through financial incentives. A few years after the introduction of emissions charges in Europe, the need for reinforcing NOx emission reduction and harmonisation of the charging schemes has been detected. With support from Switzerland, a new European model has been developed. In 2003, the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) released the new model as recommendation ECAC 27/4 under the title of "NOx Emission Classification Scheme for Aircraft". In 2007, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) published Doc 9884 "Guidance on Aircraft Emission Charges Related to Local Air Quality", which contains the ECAC model as an example. The ECAC model is based on absolute NOx aircraft emissions in a standardized landing and take-off cycle and indicates aircraft emissions in terms of an emission value. The ECAC model reinforces the "polluter pays principle": The higher the emissions, the higher the charge.
Based on ECAC 27/4, Swiss FOCA developed the directive 33-05-27 "Aircraft Engine Emissions Charges in Switzerland", which entered into effect on 1st June 2009. In addition to ECAC 27/4, the FOCA directive includes small aircraft and helicopters, as well. In February 2010 the consultation procedure for the change of the emission charges model at Swiss airports has been successfully completed. The new emissions charges (FOCA directive 33-05-27) take effect since 1st April 2010 (respectively 1st May 2010 at Geneva).
Charging rates per one emission value are as follows:
- LSZB (Berne): CHF 3.30
- LSGG (Geneva): CHF 1.40
- LSZA (Lugano): CHF 3.40
- LSZH (Zurich): CHF 2.50